There are 2 types of residence permit in Russia. As a first step on the way to the Russian citizenship a foreigner may get “Temporary Residence Permit” or “RVP” in Russian. Temporarity residence permit is issued for 3 years and it is basically a stamp in the passport. Temporary Residence Permit allows its holder to work without having to get a work permit, register at a residence for the period of validity of the Temporary Residence Permit, officially register as an entrepreneur and conduct business, get Russian visa valid for the period of up to 3 years, apply for Permanent Residence Permit (at least 4 months before Temporary Residence Permit expiration date).
The Russian government annually sets quotas for issuing Temporary Residence Permits. For instance, in 2021 the number of Temporary Residence Permits is set at 39,325. Only 2,000 of them are issued in Moscow. Requirements for foreigners applying for Russian Temporary Residence Permits are as follows: Russian language skills, no dangerous illnesses (HIV, etc), no illegal drug use.
Some foreign citizens are granted Russian Temporary Residence Permits without quota restrictions. Those are: spouses of Russian citizens, minors and legally incapacitated dependants of those holding Russian Temporary Residence Permits, investors holding at least 10% share in a Russian company for at least 3 years with registered capital of at least 100 million rubles and paying at least 6 million rubles in taxes and duties; former Russian or Soviet Union citizens, those serving in the Russian armed forces, citizens of former USSR states who received higher education in Russian universities, Ukraine citizens who acquired refugee status, persons resettling in Russia in accordance with international agreements.
The following documents are submitted to apply for Russian Temporary Residence Permit:
- Application form (2 copies)
- 2 photos (one for each application form)
- Passport or other recognized ID
- Criminal record reference
- Residence permit or other document issued by a foreign state confirming that the person resides outside of the country of citizenship
- Document confirming that the applicant is free of officially recognized dangerous infectious diseases, HIV, drug addiction
- Document confirming the knowledge of the Russian language, history and basic laws of the Russian Federation
After staying in Russia for 1 year, a foreign citizen may apply for “Permanent Residence Permit”. Permanent Residence Permit is a document that allows a foreign citizen or stateless person to permanently stay in Russia, travel in and out of Russia without restrictions. Permanent Residence Permit serves as identification document. Permanent Residence Permit doesn’t not have validity period except in cases when it’s granted to highly qualified specialists and family members. In this case Permanent Residence Permit is issued for the period of validity of the work permit. Permanent Residence Permit is granted after the person received Russian Temporary Residence Permit and had stayed in Russia for 1 year.